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Gearhead 101: Understanding How Your Car’s Engine Works

Gearhead 101: Understanding How Your Car’s Engine Works

I’ve never been a car guy. I just didn’t have any interest in tooling around under the hood to figure out how my car works. Except for replacing my air filters or changing the oil every now and then, if I ever had a problem with my car, I’d just take it into the mechanic and when he came out to explain what was wrong, I nodded politely and pretended like I knew what he was talking about.

But lately I’ve had the itch to actually learn the basics of how cars work. I don’t plan on

becoming a full on grease monkey, but I want to have a basic understanding of how everything in my car actually makes it go. At a minimum, this knowledge will allow me to have a clue about what the mechanic is talking about the next time I take my car in. Plus it seems to me that a man ought to be able to grasp the fundamentals of the technology he uses every day. When it comes to this website, I know about how coding and SEO works; it’s time for me to examine the more concrete things in my world, like what’s under the hood of my car.

I figure there are other grown men out there who are like me — men who aren’t car guys but are a little curious about how their vehicles work. So I plan on sharing what I’m learning in my own study and tinkering in an occasional series we’ll call Gearhead 101. The goal is to explain the very basics of how various parts in a car work and provide resources on where you can learn more on your own.

So without further ado, we’ll begin our first class of Gearhead 101 by explaining the ins and outs of the heart of a car: the internal combustion engine.

The Internal Combustion Engine

An internal combustion engine is called an “internal combustion engine” because fuel and air combust inside the engine to create the energy to move the pistons, which in turn move the car (we’ll show you how that happens in detail below).

Contrast that to an external combustion engine, where fuel is burned outside the engine and the energy created from that burning is what powers it. Steam engines are the best example of this. Coal is burned outside of the engine, which heats water to produce steam, which then powers the engine.

Most folks think that in the world of mechanized movement, steam-powered external combustion engines came before the internal combustion variety. The reality is that the internal combustion engine came first. (Yes, the ancient Greeks messed around with steam-powered engines, but nothing practical came from their experiments.)

In the 16th century, inventors created a form of internal combustion engine using gunpowder as the fuel to power the movement of the pistons. Actually, it wasn’t the gunpowder that moved them. The way this early internal combustion engine worked was you’d stuff a piston all the way to the top of a cylinder and then ignite gunpowder beneath the piston. A vacuum would form after the explosion and suck the piston down the cylinder. Because this engine relied on the changes in air pressure to move the piston, they called it the atmospheric engine. It wasn’t very efficient. By the 17th century, steam engines were showing a lot of promise, so the internal combustion engine was abandoned.

It wouldn’t be until 1860 that a reliable, working internal combustion engine would be invented. A Belgian fellow by the name of Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir patented an engine that injected natural gas into a cylinder, which was subsequently ignited by a permanent flame near the cylinder. It worked similarly to the gunpowder atmospheric engine, but not too efficiently.

Building on that work, in 1864 two German engineers named Nicolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen founded a company that made engines similar to Lenoir’s model. Otto gave up managing the company and started working on an engine design that he had been toying with since 1861. His design led to what we now know as the four-stroke engine, and the basic design is still used in cars today.

The Anatomy of a Car Engine

I’ll show you how the four-stroke engine works here in a bit, but before I do, I thought it would be helpful to go through the various parts of an engine so you’ll have an idea of what’s doing what in the four-stroke process. There is terminology throughout these explanations that relies on other terms in the list, so don’t worry if you get confused at first. Read through the whole thing to get an overall grasp, and then read it again so you have a basic understanding of each piece as it’s being talked about.

Engine Block (Cylinder Block)

The engine block is the foundation of an engine. Most engine blocks are cast from an aluminum alloy, but iron is still used by some manufacturers. The engine block is also referred to as the cylinder block because of the big hole or tubes called cylinders that are cast into the integrated structure. The cylinder is where the engine’s pistons slide up and down. The more cylinders an engine has the more powerful it is. In addition to the cylinders, other ducts and passageways are built into the block that allow for oil and coolant to flow to different parts of the engine.

Why is an engine called a “V6” or “V8”?

Great question! It has to do with the shape and number of cylinders an engine has. In four-cylinder engines, the cylinders are typically mounted in a straight line above the crankshaft. This engine layout is called an inline engine.

Another four-cylinder layout is called the “flat four.” Here the cylinders are laid horizontally in two banks, with the crankshaft going down the middle.

When an engine has more than four cylinders, they are divided into two cylinder banks — three cylinders (or more) per side. The division of cylinders into two banks makes the engine look like a “V.” A V-shaped engine with six cylinders = V6 engine. A V-shaped engine with eight cylinders = V8 — four in each cylinder bank.

Combustion Chamber

The combustion chamber in an engine is where the magic happens. It’s where fuel, air, pressure, and electricity come together to create the small explosion that moves the car’s pistons up and down, thus creating the power to move the vehicle. The combustion chamber is made up of the cylinder, piston, and cylinder head. The cylinder acts as the wall of the combustion chamber, the top of the piston acts as the floor of the combustion chamber, and the cylinder head serves as the ceiling of the combustion chamber.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is a piece of metal that sits over the engine’s cylinders. There are small, rounded indentations cast into the cylinder head in order to create room at the top of the chamber for combustion. A head gasket seals the joint between the cylinder head and cylinder block. Intake and outtake valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors (these parts are explained later) are also mounted to the cylinder head.


Pistons move up and down the cylinder. They look like upside down soup cans. When fuel ignites in the combustion chamber, the force pushes the piston downward, which in turn moves the crankshaft (see below). The piston attaches to the crankshaft via a connecting rod, aka the con rod. It connects to the connecting rod via a piston pin, and the connecting rod connects to the crankshaft via a connecting rod bearing.

On the top of the piston, you’ll find three or four grooves cast into the metal. Inside the grooves piston rings are put in. The piston rings are the part that actually touch the walls of the cylinder. They are made from iron and come in two varieties: compression rings and oil rings. The compression rings are the top rings and they press outward on the walls of the cylinder to provide a strong seal for the combustion chamber. The oil ring is the bottom ring on a piston and it prevents oil from the crankcase from seeping into the combustion chamber. It also wipes excess oil down the cylinder walls and back into the crankcase.


The crankshaft is what converts the up and down motion of the pistons into a rotational motion that allows the car to move. The crankshaft typically fits lengthwise in the engine block near the bottom. It extends from one end of the engine block to the other. At the front of the end of the engine, the crankshaft connects to rubber belts which connect to the camshaft and delivers power to other parts of the car; at the back end of the engine, the camshaft connects to the drive train, which transfers power to the wheels. At each end of the crankshaft, you’ll find oil seals, or “O-rings,” which prevent oil from leaking out of the engine.

The crankshaft resides in what’s called the crankcase on an engine. The crankcase is located beneath the cylinder block. The crankcase protects the crankshaft and connecting rods from outside objects. The area at the bottom of a crankcase is called the oil pan and that’s where your engine’s oil is stored. Inside the oil pan, you’ll find an oil pump that pumps oil through a filter, and then that oil is squirted on to the crankshaft, connecting rod bearings, and cylinder walls to provide lubrication to the movement of the piston stroke. The oil eventually drips back down into the oil pan, only to begin the process again

Along the crankshaft you’ll find balancing lobes that act as counterweights to balance the crankshaft and prevent engine damage from the wobbling that occurs when the crankshaft spins.

Also along the crankshaft you’ll find the main bearings. The main bearings provide a smooth surface between the crankshaft and engine block for the crankshaft to spin.


The camshaft is the brain of the engine. It works in conjunction with the crankshaft via a timing belt to make sure intake and outtake valves open and close at just the right time for optimal engine performance. The camshaft uses egg-shaped lobes that extend across it to control the timing of the opening and closing of the valves.

Most camshafts extend through the top part of the engine block, directly above the crankshaft. On inline engines, a single camshaft controls both the intake and outtake valves. On V-shaped engines, two separate camshafts are used. One controls the valves on one side of the V and the other controls the valves on the opposite side. Some V-shaped engines (like the one in our illustration) will even have two camshafts per cylinder bank. One camshaft controls one side of valves, and the other camshaft controls the other side.

Timing System

As mentioned above, the camshaft and crankshaft coordinate their movement via a timing belt or chain. The timing chain holds the crankshaft and camshaft in the same relative position to each other at all times during the engine’s operation. If the camshaft and crankshaft become out of sync for whatever reason (the timing chain skips a gear cog, for example), the engine won’t work.


The valvetrain is the mechanical system that’s mounted to the cylinder head that controls the operation of the valves. The valve train consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods, and lifters.


There are two types of valves: intake valves and outtake valves. Intake valves bring a mixture of air and fuel into the combustion chamber to create the combustion to power the engine. Outtake valves let the exhaust that’s created after the combustion out of the combustion chamber.

Cars typically have one intake valve and one outtake valve per cylinder. Most high-performing cars (Jaguars, Maseratis, etc.) have four valves per cylinder (two intake, two outtake). While not considered a “high performance” brand, Honda also uses four valves per cylinder on their vehicles. There are even engines with three valves per cylinder — two inlet valves, one outtake valve. Multi-valve systems allow the car to “breathe” better, which in turn improves engine performance.

Rocker Arms

Rocker arms are little levers that touch the lobes, or cams, on the camshaft. When a lobe lifts one end of the rocker, the other end of the rocker presses down on the valve stem, opening the valve to let air in to the combustion chamber or letting exhaust out. It works sort of like a see-saw.


Sometimes camshaft lobes touch the rocker arm directly (as you see with overhead camshaft engines), thus opening and closing the valve. On overhead valve engines, the camshaft lobes don’t come into direct contact with the rocker arms, so pushrods or lifters are used.

Fuel Injectors

In order to create the combustion needed to move the pistons, we need fuel in the cylinders. Before the 1980s, cars used carburetors to supply fuel to the combustion chamber. Today, all cars use one of three fuel injection systems: direct fuel injection, ported fuel injection, or throttle body fuel injection.

With direct fuel injection, each cylinder gets its own injector, which sprays fuel directly into the combustion chamber at just the right time to combust.

With ported fuel injection, instead of spraying the fuel directly into the cylinder, it sprays into the intake manifold just outside the valve. When the valve opens, air and fuel enter the combustion chamber.

Throttle body fuel injection systems sort of work how carburetors did, but without the carburetor. Instead of each cylinder getting its own fuel injector, there’s only one fuel injector that goes to a throttle body. The fuel mixes with air in the throttle body and then is dispersed to the cylinders via the intake valves.


Above each cylinder is a sparkplug. When it sparks, it ignites the compressed fuel and air, causing the mini-explosion that pushes the piston down.

The Four-Stroke Cycle four stroke engine diagram illustration

So now that we know all the basic parts of the engine, let’s take a look at the movement that actually makes our car move: the four-stroke cycle.

The above illustration shows the four-stroke cycle in a single cylinder. This is going on in the other cylinders as well. Repeat this cycle a thousand times in a minute, and you get a car that moves.

Well, there you go. The basics of how a car engine works. Go take a look under your car’s hood today and see if you can point out the parts that we discussed. If you’d like some more info on how a car works, check out the book How Cars WorkIt has helped me out a lot in my research. The author does a great job breaking things down into language that even the total beginner can understand.

It’s crowded, but not boisterous in the hotel’s lounge. Everyone has a cocktail in their hand, and is engaged in quiet conversation, or perhaps just silently enjoying the evening. Setting the mood is an old-school crooner; a gentleman all dressed up, and filling the room with his witty banter and warm, jazzy singing. It’s a classy and romantic environment, helped in large part by the charismatic guy on stage.

Is the year 1955, the singer Frank Sinatra? No, it’s 2015, and the crooner is Wade Tower. Based out of Oklahoma, Tower brings back the pleasures of Rat Pack-era standards (as well as classic country western tunes) to modern audiences. We had the pleasure of interviewing Mr. Tower about what his ring-a-ding-ding job entails.

1. Tell us a little about yourself (Where are you from? How old are you? Describe your job and how long you’ve been at it, etc.).

I grew up in Oklahoma. Years ago I lived briefly in L.A., but I wanted to raise my family in Oklahoma so I have been here most of my life. I love Oklahoma for a lot of reasons, but mainly there are two that stand out. Being right in the center of the country makes traveling fairly easy. I love what I do, but hate being away from my family, so getting to places, and back, quickly is important to me. Also, I love the people here. You never meet a stranger.

I am 50.

Being a crooner is simply being an entertainer. The term “crooner” is an epithet given to male singers of jazz standards. But, ironically, Sinatra said in an interview he did not consider himself or Bing Crosby crooners. Over the years crooning has crossed over into other genres. Bing Crosby had some huge country hits and brought “crooning” into country music and Dean Martin’s country music during his time with Reprise are classics.

Growing up in Oklahoma I love doing both — standards and country — which are the most popular genres for crooning. I have shows that highlight each of them; I have a standards show called “The Chairman and Friends” that is a tribute show to Sinatra. I also do a show called “Damn Strait” that is a tribute show to George Strait.

That being said, I perform my shows for events and venues of all kinds. One week might include singing for a private event with my big band during a cocktail hour at a charity event, performing the Sinatra show for a corporate event, and then headlining at a casino with the Strait show.

I think most people think of crooners singing in a smoky lounge while people sit around and drown their sorrows. I have done plenty of that. Lounge work is good work because it is steady, and a contract with a hotel or lounge is usually 3 months to a year in length. In this business, as with all, consistency is a blessing and it gives you a chance to work on your craft. Singing for 3 hours a night once a week with no set outline gives you an opportunity to try out new material and see what works and what doesn’t.

That is what I love about what I do. Every crowd is different and every venue is different. It’s funny, they are the same in a lot of ways, but it’s the people that make each place unique. When you love being in front of people it doesn’t really matter what that looks like — you just need somebody else in the room.

2. Why did you want to become a crooner? Did you always know you wanted to sing for a living?

I grew up watching old movies. I always had this love of the 40s where people dressed well and seemed to have much better manners than they do today. There was a feeling of formality to life then and a sense gratitude that rang true to me. My first “icon” of sorts was Bing Crosby. He had that voice and a sense of humor that made him a star, but also likeable. As I listened to his music, that led to Sinatra, Martin, Bennett and all of the other great crooners. I was hooked.

I first performed at church when I was four. I had the bug from the day I was born. As my brother says, “If you turn on a flashlight Wade will jump in front of it and start singing.” True. I’ll admit it. I love performing. I grew up wanting to entertain. Singing just sort of rose to the top because it allows me to use all of the skills I have in one format. Doing a show involves singing well, but you also have to make sure the crowd stays engaged and enjoys themselves. Being at a live show is about the total experience and not just the songs themselves.

3. How do you become a crooner? Did you study music in school?

As I mentioned, I have always performed. I have always loved standards and the crooners from country music, but I never understood how much others loved the music too until I sang at a charitable event where they had local “celebrities” do karaoke. I was not performing full-time back then and I quite honestly had put off preparing for the event. I chose Sinatra’s “That’s Life” the day before the show and when I walked on stage it just clicked. I had on a tuxedo, lit a cigarette when I walked on stage, and after I sang I got a standing ovation. As I walked to my car that night I realized that something inside of me had just happened. The connection with the audience that night was addictive.

I took my first voice lessons when I was in the fifth grade. I continued to participate in every type of class and instruction I could growing up. I was blessed to have parents who supported my passion and allowed me to be in plays and acting classes my entire life. I attended college as a theater major on a scholarship. Again, singing was always a part of my life, but I didn’t focus on it until later in life. I have taken private voice lessons on and off the last 15 years to keep me in shape vocally and make sure I remember to sing technically correct.

4. What does an average day entail for you? What does being a crooner actually look like?

Since I still have a day job, my average day is a lot like everyone else’s. I work my day job, spend some time with my family at dinner and in the early evening, and then later at night I work on new songs, develop bits for my shows, or email people about bookings. I drive a lot in my day job so I listen to music in my truck constantly. When I am not in my truck I have music playing in my office. I love music, and I have to listen to it so I can learn new songs or find new songs to perform. Music has always been a constant in my life, but the soundtrack of my days are very eclectic. I may listen to a bunch of big band and jazz songs in the morning and spend the afternoon listening to both classic and new country.

On show days my life looks more like you would expect a crooner’s life to look. Most show days start slow and build to a crescendo. I try and wake up late compared to most days, around 8:00 or 9:00, get in a run, and have some breakfast. Then I simply hang out in my hotel room or a coffee shop nearby. You want to make sure you don’t walk on stage tired or worn out so I don’t sightsee much when I travel. I will go to a sound check mid-afternoon with the band. We usually complete the sound check and a short rehearsal in about 90 minutes depending on the venue. After sound check I will go back to my hotel room and try to catch a quick nap if I can, which I usually can’t. I will eat early because I don’t like to perform on a full stomach. If show time is 8:00 I will eat around 4:00. After an early dinner I hang out again, and then will head to the dressing room around 6:30 to get dressed and make sure everything is set for the show. Shows can run an hour or two depending on the event and once we are done we will usually find someplace to grab a bite before we head off to the hotel room and call it a day. It is difficult to wind down after a show. The energy the crowd gives you doesn’t wear off for a while.

5. How do you find work as a crooner? Can it be a full-time living, or is just something to do on nights/weekends? Do you have an agent?

Chasing work can be the biggest obstacle. It is difficult when you start out because no one knows who you are or how good you are at what you do. Once you can get some work under your belt it does get easier. The problem with being a crooner is that I sing a specific type of music. I am not a cover band. I am not a dance band per se. People don’t hire me and get a huge variety of music. They have to want to hear the jazz standards or country music from George Strait and similar. But, I love crooning because they are songs people are familiar with. They are songs that people love and have very concrete memories with. Honestly, I have not met a crowd yet that didn’t love the music. Whether they like me or not is one thing, but the songs are always popular.

It can certainly be a full-time living, but you have to be willing to travel almost every week. I have a day job, but I have been working towards making it full-time for the last few years and my hope is that it will happen in 2016. Going full-time is a big step, especially with a family, so you want to make sure your calendar is booked for at least a year out before you take that leap.

I do have a booking agent, About-Entertainment in Los Angeles. I have also worked with Box Talent in Oklahoma City for several years. They handle all of the paperwork and the contract side of the business and I am eternally grateful for that partnership. I do not have a manager at the moment. I have had a few in the past, but it is difficult to find someone who believes in your abilities and as importantly, has the power to give your career some momentum.

6. What’s the job market like? What would you say to a young person who wants to get into the biz?

The “job” market is wide open if you are willing to be creative. My shows will fit into many different types of events and venues, but people don’t always have the vision to see that fact. You have to build relationships and then work with people to help show them how having a crooner can positively affect the success of their venue and/or their event. There is a huge misconception that the standards side of crooning only appeals to people over 60. But, I sing at a lot of private events and shows where the audience age range is 20-40 and they have a blast. Michael Buble has a had a lot to do with making the music known to younger people, but I hear story after story about folks who have heard these songs at their grandparent’s homes or that it is the music their parents listened to often. Sinatra and Strait are two legends in the crooning/music business and I find people all over the country who love their music.

I created two bands, one big band for the standards and one country band for the Damn Strait shows. If you are starting out and really want to work you will need to find some musicians who are better than you are and build relationships with them. My musicians are amazing and I literally could not do what I do without them. I would love to say people hire me for me, but the reality is if your band is average you will be average too, no matter how well you sing. I would put my two bands up against anyone’s, anywhere. Any success I have is on their shoulders and they definitely make me better.

I would certainly encourage someone who is passionate about this business. But, be smart about it. I don’t want to sound like a father, but get an education. Make sure you can support yourself with another skill or profession. Crooning can open a lot of doors and provide some amazing opportunities. I read a book by Jon Acuff, Quitter, years ago and he touched on that same principal — chase your dreams, but do it in a way that gives you the best opportunity to succeed. As I said above, I work with a lot of incredible musicians who teach music and give private lessons or have built financial support with other careers. One of my pianists is a retired airline pilot. You have to be realistic that crooning is a niche market and that to make a living you may have to do something along with singing.

If you are meant to sing professionally full-time it will happen. I love that about show business; the audience will tell you if what you are doing is working. You never have to wonder long if what you do is well-received.

7. What is the work/life balance like?

I have a wife and three daughters and I would rather spend time with them than anything else on the planet. Yes, I have to travel a lot, and yes, it is somewhat all-consuming when I am preparing for a show, but my down time is totally mine. I am not on call and I have no responsibilities when I am not working.

That freedom is a double-edged sword; I am my own boss and make my own hours show business-wise, but if I am not singing I am not making any money. So you do have to balance how much to work and to schedule and when to take a break.

The ups and downs of show business can be brutal. I had an incredible 2010-2012, but then I learned some painful lessons in 2012 and 2013. I made some mistakes and managed the business side of my world horribly. That is the reason I still have a day job. I had to back up, take stock of what was working and what wasn’t, and start over.

My busiest year, I believe I did around 100 dates. Break that down into 52 weeks in a year and I averaged a little over 2 shows a week. That doesn’t sound like much, but add a travel day to each of those dates and it becomes a chore. Also, you obviously don’t work a consistent two shows a week. Some months you may work twice and then some months you may have fifteen shows. Honestly, those busy months are what I work so hard for and I love them. When you live to be in front of people, any chance to be in front of people is a blessing. Plus, work is always a blessing.

I know, from my own experience, there are worse ways to make a living. To do something I love and get paid for it? It seems like a dream at times.

8. What’s the best part of your job?

Being on stage. Period. Being in front of an audience and working to gain their trust and help them relax for a while is an incredible feeling. Life is hard. The world can be cruel to people and I know most people work way too hard for what they get paid. If I get an opportunity to make their life better, even if just for an hour or two, I feel like that is a huge opportunity. I am grateful for each and every person who spends some of their hard-earned money and their precious time to come and watch me do what I love.

I love seeing people smile as I sing and hearing them laugh as I tell them some of the stories about my life. I love talking to them after the shows and hearing how a certain song has impacted their life. I love having the chance to share life with people. I am very transparent on stage and in life. I feel like we go through things to help others know how to deal with similar situations. The only way to share your experiences is to step into each other’s lives. Being in this business allows me the chance to get to know a lot of people. I hope that time on stage is the beginning of a relationship with each audience member. In this day of social media they can continue to follow and interact with me long after that one show. I love people and I love getting to hear their stories. I have gotten to share in some huge moments in people’s lives, good and bad, all because we met at a show. Those relationships mean more to me than anything; music is great, but people matter most. The music is simply a tool to help bring us together.

9. What’s the worst part of your job?

It is easily the business side of showbiz. I love the hard work involved in creating shows, rehearsing, and being on stage. As I mentioned, I am not crazy about the travel, but I absolutely hate chasing down show dates, putting together contracts, and making sure paperwork is complete for each show along the way. I am little OCD about things that deal with the show itself and I worry about every tiny detail. But I do not have the skills or passion to spend time on the business details. My dad was a successful businessman and I would love to be better at it, but I don’t have the patience and/or the skill set necessary. The details and hard work that go into each performance have a direct impact on the audience and their enjoyment. I know paperwork has an impact on my business, but I have a really hard time connecting paperwork to an audience.

Again, to be successful in this business you have to surround yourself with people who are better than you are at certain things. Since I hate the paperwork side, my booking agencies deal with that side of the business. Delegation makes life so much easier.

10. What’s the biggest misconception people have about your job?

People think that crooners are these lounge singers that sleep until noon each day and live their lives when the sun goes down. I run into people all of the time that imagine I live in Vegas or New York City and assume I have a party lifestyle.

I love the atmosphere of a nice hotel lounge and I love casinos, but I don’t drink and you’ll find me at church every Sunday. It’s a little bit ironic — although I love the vibe of those places I am not one who would probably be there if I wasn’t performing. I’m not a gambler, I just love the energy of those places.

Plus, I enjoy watching people getting to relax. They come to these places to unwind and forget about their cares for a while and I have a front row seat. People will ask me during a set or after a show if I get any time off, but they don’t realize to me being on stage is time off. It’s a win/win — they can have a beer and decompress and I can relax while singing to them.

11. Any other advice, tips, commentary, or anecdotes you’d like to add?

I would suggest to anyone, simply do what you love. Crooning for a living has not been easy. There have been some rough times, financially and emotionally, but I can tell my girls and my future grandkids that I always did what I thought I was made to do in this world. I try to have a positive impact on everyone I have the privilege of meeting along the way. I am 50 and I have had people say I am too old to still be chasing this dream, but it’s not a dream if you are living it.

Lastly, be kind to people. Be nicer than you have to be to everyone. Make sure everyone you meet along the way knows you care about them and do what you can to encourage them. I love crooning because the music is happy music. I don’t believe anyone can listen to big band music or George Strait music and not tap their toe and start moving a little to the music. Great music can change your mood, change your day, and in my personal experience, it has changed my life.

Writer: Manly Skills
Date: July 13, 2020
Source: artofmanliness
Photo Credit: artofmanliness


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